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Distributed SQL on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) with YugaByte DB’s Helm Chart

The glory days of the heavy-weight hypervisor are slowly fading away, and in the last few years, containerization of applications and services is the new reality. With containerization, enterprises can prototype, deploy, and meet scale demands more quickly. To systematically and efficiently manage these large-scale deployments, enterprises have bet on technologies like Kubernetes (aka k8s), a powerful container orchestrator, to get the job done. Kubernetes was originally developed by Google, but it has been open sourced since 2014 and is today developed by a large community of contributors.

Now, working with Kubernetes at scale can be complex as it involves tying together several interdependent Kubernetes resources and concepts – pods, services, and replica sets – each requiring you to write a detailed manifest definition in YAML (Yet Another Markup Language) prior to deployment. The complexity can rise to whole another level when dealing with distributed databases which are distributed systems on their own right. That’s where Helm charts can come to the rescue. In this article we will get you started with Google Kubernetes Engine, Google’s managed Kubernetes service, using the YugaByte DB Helm chart. If you are new to Kubernetes, it may be helpful to review some basics called out here.

Introducing Google Kubernetes Engine

Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) provides a managed environment for deploying, managing, and scaling containerized applications using infrastructure resources from the Google Cloud Platform (GCP). The environment GKE provides consists of multiple machines (specifically, Google Compute Engine instances) grouped together to form a cluster. It has been general available since August 2015 and hence can be easily thought of as the most mature managed Kubernetes service in the market.

Users adopt GKE over other alternatives primarily to benefit from GCP’s advanced cluster management features. These include:

Helm and Helm Charts

Almost every operating system or programming language has a package manager. For example, Debian has apt, Redhat has rpm, Java has maven and so, when it comes to k8s, the package manager is called Helm.

Helm enables developers and administrators to streamline packaging, configuration, deployment, and managing services on K8s clusters. This means that by using Helm, you can install applications from a webpath or repo, figure out application dependencies and install them, upgrade the software if a new version is available, and configure the software deployment. All of this can be done using a single package file. Isn’t that wonderful?

Helm packages are called charts. A chart in Helm essentially is made by bundling together multiple YAML configuration files that specify the metadata, configuration, dependencies, and documentation. The following table captures some of the important YAML files in a charts package.

  • chart.yaml: This file has the metadata of the chart such as the chart name, version, maintainer, etc.
  • requirements.yaml: This file stores the charts dependency libraries and references
  • values.yaml: This file stores the default input values for the chart. Some of these values may be passed to the underlying container to configure the application

How Does Helm Work?

Helm consists of several key components as shown in the figure below. Helm has a client-server architecture, with a gRPC-based command line tool called Helm client, and a server component called tiller, which has to run on the cluster it manages. Tiller listens for commands sent by the Helm client, renders charts templates, creates/updates resources, and tracks application state. It leverages the underlying K8s API for it’s operations.

Learning GKE Basics with the YugaByte DB Helm Chart

We can learn GKE basics using the YugaByte DB Helm chart. Simply along these steps.

Step 1. Using the GKE dashboard, create a kubernetes 3 node cluster as shown in the figure below. Just go with the default settings.

Step 2. Once the cluster is created, we can interact with the cluster simply using the Google Cloud Shell.

[email protected]:~ (yugakube)$ gcloud container clusters list
NAME LOCATION MASTER_VERSION MASTER_IP MACHINE_TYPE NODE_VERSION NUM_NODES STATUS
standard-cluster-1 us-central-a 1.11.7-gke.4 35.203.104.236 n1-standard-2 1.11.7-gke.4 3 RUNNING

Step 3. Check if Kubernetes master is running

[email protected]:~ (yugakube)$ kubectl cluster-info

Kubernetes master is running at https://35.238.63.196
GLBCDefaultBackend is running at https://35.238.63.196/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/default-http-backend:http/proxy
Heapster is running at https://35.238.63.196/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/heapster/proxy
KubeDNS is running at https://35.238.63.196/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/kube-dns:dns/proxy
Metrics-server is running at https://35.238.63.196/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:metrics-server:/proxy

Step 4. Install Helm and Tiller

Follow the instructions here, to install Helm client and the Tiller server.

Step 5. Run Helm version command to verify that Helm client and server exists

[email protected]:~ (yugakube)$ helm version
Client: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.13.0", GitCommit:"79d07943b03aea2b76c12644b4b54733bc5958d6", GitTreeState:"clean"}
Server: &version.Version{SemVer:"v2.13.0", GitCommit:"79d07943b03aea2b76c12644b4b54733bc5958d6", GitTreeState:"clean"}

Step 6. Create a service account for Tiller to use

[email protected]:~ (yugakube)$ kubectl create serviceaccount --namespace kube-system tiller
serviceaccount/tiller created

Step 7. Get the YugaByte DB Helm repo

git clone https://github.com/YugaByte/yugabyte-db.git
cd ./yugabyte-db/cloud/kubernetes/helm/

kubectl create -f yugabyte-rbac.yaml

Step 8. Initialize Helm with the service account, and make sure to upgrade any previous initializations

helm init --service-account yugabyte-helm --upgrade --wait

$HELM_HOME has been configured at /home/user/.Helm.Tiller (the Helm server-side component) has been upgraded to the current version.

Happy Helming!

Step 9. Install YugaByte DB using Helm

helm install yugabyte --setresource.master.requests.cpu=0.1,resource.master.requests.memory=0.2Gi,resource.tserver.requests.cpu=0.1,resource.tserver.requests.memory=0.2Gi --namespace yb-demo --name yb-demo --set "enablePostgres=true"

kubectl exec -it -n yb-demo yb-tserver-0 bash -- -c "YB_ENABLED_IN_POSTGRES=1 FLAGS_pggate_master_addresses=yb-master-0.yb-masters.yb-demo.svc.cluster.local:7100,yb-master-1.yb-masters.yb-demo.svc.cluster.local:7100,yb-master-2.yb-masters.yb-demo.svc.cluster.local:7100 /home/yugabyte/postgres/bin/initdb -D /tmp/yb_pg_initdb_tmp_data_dir -U postgres"

Step 10. Connect using psql, the PostgreSQL command line shell

kubectl exec -n yb-demo -it yb-tserver-0 /home/yugabyte/bin/psql -- -U postgres -d postgres -h yb-tserver-0.yb-tservers.yb-demo -p5433

Step 11. Create a sample table, and seed it with some data

CREATE TABLE sample(k1 INT, k2 INT, v1 INT, v2 TEXT, PRIMARY KEY (k1, k2));

INSERT INTO sample VALUES (1, 2.0, 3, 'a'), (2, 3.0, 4, 'b'), (3, 4.0, 5, 'c’);

SELECT * FROM sample;

Step 12. Check cluster status

helm status yb-demo

Step 13. Delete cluster, including all Helm PVC’s

helm del --purge yb-demo

kubectl delete pvc --namespace yb-demo --all

Best Practices for using Helm Charts

If you’re new to Helm and wondering about some best practices to keep it simple and tidy, take a look at the official Helm Best Practices documentation, which is a good starting point.

Conclusion

In this article we learnt about GKE, Helm, and demonstrated how to learn the basics of GKE using a YugaByte DB Helm chart. To learn more GKE, review the official GKE docs. Also review the the official Helm docs. To find official charts for Helm, check out the official Helm/charts Git repo. Also, don’t forget to check out the YugaByte DB docs on Helm here. Happy Helming with GKE & YugaByte DB!

What’s Next?

  • Compare YugaByte DB in depth to databases like CockroachDB, Google Cloud Spanner and MongoDB.
  • Get started with YugaByte DB on macOS, Linux, Docker, and Kubernetes.
  • Contact us to learn more about licensing, pricing or to schedule a technical overview.

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